THE OTTOMANS RULED OVER VAST LANDS IN EUROPE, THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA – AS WELL AS THE CAUCASUS. UNDER SULEIMAN THEY BECAME THE CALIPHATE AND THE ROLE OF THE OTTOMANS AS THE PROTECTOR OF MUSLIMS WAS REINFORCED BY ABDUL HAMID THE SECOND DURING THE LATTER END OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. THE SULTANATE WAS A MULTI RACIAL, MULTI ETHNIC AND MULTI RELIGIOUS ENTITY BASED ON TOLERANCE – UNLIKE THE EMPIRES OF BRITAIN, FRANCE, RUSSIA AND AUSTRIA WHOSE MEDDLING IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE EMPIRE CREATED TODAY’S POWDERKEG ..
CHECHNYA, Grozny – Russia fought two wars in its break away republic – the first from 1994 to 1996 which resulted in President Boris Yeltsin pulling out his troops. But that conflict was restarted in 1999 once Vladimir Putin came to power at the Kremlin. Russia pulled its troops out of Chechnya in 2009.